QA teams and developers are increasingly using test automation frameworks and tools. They can use approaches, tools, assumptions, and libraries across departments by using open-source frameworks. Apart from Selenium, another tool that has gained popularity is Cypress.io.
The existence of functional test automation would not be possible without Cypress.io. This new tool has received a lot of attention, and for a good reason. In some ways, Cypress makes automation testing fun and cool because it's fast, reliable, and interactive. But has Cypress proven to be the best alternative to Selenium WebDriver? If so, how?
Does Cypress have the power to topple the current king? First, however, it needs to be questioned whether Cypress was created to replace Selenium WebDriver. Comparing the two testing tools reveals that while they share a lot in common, each has different characteristics than letting it go its way.
Here's a closer look at what these two tools do and how they differ.
What is Selenium?
Selenium is a web application testing framework that supports different platforms and browsers and is open-source. For the past decade, the Selenium WebDriver library and its language-specific framework have been a consistent choice among testers. Quality assurance teams can automate complex test cases for any browser with this software.
Although Selenium is challenging to learn and requires at least one programming language, it boasts a large and active user community, even holding an annual user conference. In addition, selenium is fundamental to ensuring cross-browser testing due to its ability to test across the most popular browsers.
Since Selenium testing has become more popular, it has become an integral part of many automation strategies and a crucial component of tools like CrossBrowserTesting. When you learn Selenium, you can use cloud-based testing tools to access thousands of browsers simultaneously and speed up testing.
Key benefits of Selenium
The Selenium tool has been essential for test automation and will likely remain so for years to come. There are several benefits it brings to the table that make it popular:
- Supports Linux, Unix, Mac OS and Windows.
- Browser compatibility with Firefox, Chrome, Safari, and Edge.
- Relevant and concise APIs
- Scripts can be executed concurrently or in parallel by Selenium.
Drawbacks of Selenium
Selenium does not have all the cutting-edge features that promote diversity and ease of use that make it so popular. Although it is not perfect, some of its shortcomings include:
- Inability to automate the generation of test results
- Supports Linux, Unix, Mac OS and Windows.
- Element load or page load complexity
- Test images are not adequately supported
How to install Selenium?
At the time of writing, Selenium can automate all major browsers with WebDriver, a tool for modifying the behavior of web browsers through a language-neutral API and protocol. Selenium communicates with each browser through a driver, which delegates control down to the browser. In addition, each browser provides an implementation of WebDriver to facilitate communication between the two.
A Selenium setup is different from other commercial tools. Before beginning to code Selenium, you must choose your language, browser, and browser driver.
Install the Selenium library
You can install Selenium for your preferred programming language by following the steps below.
As part of the first stage of automation projects, install Selenium bindings. Depending on the language you choose, you will need to install libraries.
Here, we are installing Selenium via Python.The Selenium Python libraries can be installed using pip:
You can also use the PyPI source archive
(selenium-x.x.x.tar.gz) to install Selenium and setup.py:
Set up the browser drivers
Automate a browser by setting it up on your system.
With Selenium's WebDriver, you can connect to all major browsers, including Firefox, Chrome/Chromium, Edge, Internet Explorer, Safari, and Opera. In addition, the automated feature of WebDriver will be used if the browser supports it.Selenium does not include these implementations in the standard distribution because no browser vendors provide them.Use Selenium to open and close browsers.
Installing and configuring a Selenium library
and a browser driver
allow you to start and stop sessions in the browser.
Upon starting a browser, it will usually provide settings that describe what capabilities it should support and how the session should be handled. Of course, each browser's capabilities differ, but all of them share some.Chrome
Chrome v75 and above are required to run Selenium 4. In addition, ensure that Chrome and Chrome driver are both the same version as your Chrome browser.
Chrome has its features on top of the shared ones.
Start writing a Selenium script
A step-by-step guide to writing a Selenium script
Installing Selenium and its drivers gives you the ability to write Selenium code.
Eight essential components
When Selenium calls the browser, it requests information or sends commands to it. There are several basic Selenium commands that you will frequently use:
- Set up the session
- Click on the browser button.
- Get browser information
- Plan a wait-time strategy
- Identify an element
- Act on the element
- Find out about elements.
- Session ends
Bringing everything together
The following eight points form a complete script
What is Cypress?
Cypress is capable of assisting with writing both unit and integration tests. Shortly, Cypress is both architecturally and logically different from Selenium.
Cypress automation has the same phases as other automation frameworks.
Test creation > Scripting the tests > Testing > Debugging the tests.
Key benefits of Cypress
Cypress, a fast, reliable, and futuristic tool, makes test automation possible. Here are some contributing factors:
- A snapshot provides developers and quality assurance teams with a complete overview of what occurred at the moment of test execution.
- Test scripts with fewer commands are faster to run.
- Users can control how functions, timers, and server responses function through Clocks, Stubs, and Spies and verify the results of these actions.
- A developer or QA engineer can view all elements before executing an action when the scrolling operation is enabled.
Disadvantages of Cypress
Although this tool is new and exciting, there is room for improvement. There are several notable flaws about it:
- You can't use it to run two browsers at once.
- iFrames are only limitedly supported in Cypress, and the platform lacks multiple tab support.
- At present, Cypress is incompatible with Internet Explorer and Safari.
Installing Cypress via NPM
Launch npm (the Node package manager) from the project directory and run the following command:
Package.json is created by running the command above. The package name, description, keywords, and author are just a few of the basic details to include. After filling in all the relevant details, the package.json file looks like the following.
Img Src - https://www.browserstack.com/guide/cypress-installation-for-test-automation
You will need to run the following command after completing the installation.
This command instals Cypress locally for the given project as a development dependency.
Compare Cypress and Selenium
The Selenium framework and Cypress are both open-source tools for automating web tests. Listed below are their key differences.
Cypress runs within the browser. The Node.js server interfaces with the application's front end and back end simultaneously. Cypress can access all kinds of window objects, local storage, browser developer tools, and document object models, making this tool incredibly flexible and easy to automate.
Selenium offers Webdriver APIs to interact with browsers. Selenium includes four layers: a wire protocol, a driver, a browser, and a client library. Each browser requires a unique driver.
Currently on Chrome, Firefox, Edge, Brave, and Electron.
Mozilla Firefox 3+, Internet Explorer 7,8,9,10, Safari 5.1+ Opera 11.5 Google Chrome 12+
Testers and developers alike can use Cypress.
Testers uses Selenium exclusively.
Convenience of Setup
The bundle includes all required files without needing any drivers.
There needs to be separate installation of the Selenium web driver and the browser driver.
Both paid and free features are available.
It's open source.
No driver dependencies.
Driver-dependent, like different browsers.
Free access is available to all features.
Some advanced features require a subscription, though all core features are free.
that we've compared Cypress and Selenium, it's time to see whether the new entry is as good as its competitors. Can Cypress replace Selenium? Does each tool serve a different purpose? The comparison is as follows:
Front-end vs. end-to-end testing
Using Selenium WebDriver, you can test web applications end-to-end. This type of testing is relatively new among developers, so QA managers have extensively used it for frontend testing. This trend has been reinforced in agile software development methodologies since front-end developers must test their code before the method is truly leveraged. Developing test code and integration and end-to-end functional tests for frontend builders enable them to evaluate how their creations work on actual browsers.
The Test Framework
In contrast, Selenium WebDriver does not suffer from such limitations. It should be noted that Selenium testing does not even require a testing framework. The method collects information from a browser and crawls web pages.
Integrated server mocking
Cypress is sometimes boasted as being faster than Selenium. A key part of its performance is its built-in mocking functionality. Cypress understands that most front-end developers have redundant needs since they are focused on the needs of their target users. Therefore, they use mock XML HTTP requests instead to speed up testing. This approach will be seamless and faster as part of Cypress's integrated mocking functionality. Selenium WebDriver allows you to mock server responses, but it's a little more complicated. As a result, Selenium mock servers return accurate responses to accurately mock server responses. Thus, a built-in server mocking function makes things more accessible and efficient.
Does Cypress perform better than Selenium?
The purposes of Selenium and Cypress are different. There is a wide audience for Selenium. However, Cypress is a different product with a different target market from the one that uses Web automation testing. Choosing a tool based on your needs comes down to knowing your requirements.
Does Cypress replace Selenium?
Cypress is ideally suited for developers new to test automation rather than similarly replacing Selenium. As such, it is one of the fastest-growing automation tools on the planet. However, Selenium is more suitable for a broader audience and is more general-purpose.
Which tool is better than Selenium?
Why is Cypress so popular?
Should I use Cypress?
With Selenium and Cypress as our benchmarks, we discussed two major web automation testing players: Selenium and Cypress. The emerging technology (Cypress) aims to gain ground.
Cypress offers many features that Selenium lacks, such as automatic scrolling, reloading in real-time, time travel, and top-notch performance.
Meanwhile, Selenium offers features like remote execution, cross-browser compatibility, provision to perform tests in different programming languages, and more.
Considering how different Selenium and Cypress are, it would be wise to select an appropriate tool for your needs, skill-set, etc. Always look at the long-term implications of your choice and be sure to make the right choice.